a. Washington: Large seedless fruit, most commonly eaten fresh (not juiced). Suited to cooler
production areas, does not produce high quality fruit in the desert. Produces well in San Diego
County, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Redlands areas. Fruit splitting in the fall
and winter is a common problem and often related to irrigation practices weather conditions (see
Q. 38). Harvested from January through April in home gardens. This navel is the standard by
which all other navels are judged.
b. Cara Cara: this navel orange has reddish pink flesh. The pink color is similar to that of the red
grapefruits, however, it is similar to the Washington navel in taste and harvest time (February
c. Lane Late: ripens late in the season, extending the harvest of navels into early summer.
2. Valencia orange: Often called “juice” oranges. Thin skinned, smaller fruit with very juicy pulp. Tends
to alternate bear (see Q. 10). Ripens later than Navel (early summer through fall) - fruit store well on
the tree but may re-green in the summer. Seedless variety is Delta.
3. Blood oranges: Moro (better color) and Tarocco (better flavor) do well in inland and coastal areas.
Almost seedless fruit with a deep red coloration. Flavor is berry-like. Attractive spreading tree.
E. Mandarins (Tangerines) and Tangelos
1. Satsuma Mandarin
Satsuma mandarins produce easy-to-peel and seedless fruit. The varieties, Dobashi beni, Okitsu wase
and Owari all thrive in cooler parts of Southern California. Satsuma is sensitive to high temperature
and thus there are no Satsuma varieties suitable to plant in the lower desert valleys. Satsuma’s are the
most cold hardy citrus trees of commercial importance. They are also the earliest fruit to ripen. Fruit
from both Dobashi beni and Okitsu wase mature at the end of October. Owari ripens a month later. If
fruit are left on the tree they rapidly becomes puffy and insipid, however, fruit store well off of the
tree. Some Owari strains have degenerated into poor trees due to its ability to sport readily producing
new strains that are not productive. Most Satsuma varieties tend to alternate bear (see Q. 10).
2. Other Mandarins
a. Dancy, the Holiday tangerine, is rich, juicy with seeds, and often, sold with leaves attached.
b. Seedless Kishu has small fruit slightly larger than a golf ball, mild, sweet, truly seedless, quite
juicy and extremely easy to peel. The fruit matures in November and holds until January.
c. Gold Nugget is a seedless variety, developed and released by UCR that has a sweet, rich flavor
with a somewhat bumpy skin that peels easily. Ready in March and holds well through August.
d. Pixie, also developed by UCR, has a sweet, mild flavor, without seeds, holds well and peels
easily. In the inland area, fruit can be harvested as early as mid-February and go through early
e. Clementine (Algerian) has bright orange, juicy flesh with sweet, very rich flavor. Bears from
December through February. Must have Dancy pollinator for good fruit production.
f. Fairchild is very juicy with richly sweet flesh and seeds. Needs Temple (Royal) pollinator.
g. Shasta Gold™ (TDE #2) was recently developed and released by UCR. The flesh is seedless,
bright orange and juicy. The flavor is richly sweet. In the inland are, the season is mid-February
to mid-March and holds well on the tree into April or May.